Unlike in the USA, flour in most European countries isn't differentiated by protein content. The distinction criteria in Germany are "type", which concerns the proportion of bran contained, and, (for special uses), "grippiness" or size of the particles. There is no such a thing as bread flour or cake flour.
I decided to experiment with bread and bought hard wheat flour (durum flour) online. It is milled as rather large particles. I decided to mix it 50/50 with my normal flour and use a very simple bread recipe - 1% salt, 3% yeast, 55% water - which is correspons to a middle-range hydration with the typical Type 405 non-grippy flour standardly used here. I kneaded by hand, as I don't have a food processor. But while kneading the liquid in, the dough got quite firm, so I stopped adding flour. (at this point, 12% of my flour was left over). The dough was a bit easier to handle than soft wheat dough, almost non-sticking, but it was very unelastic, and didn't pass the windowpane test well even after long kneading. The baked bread was OK, but it was dense and didn't rise much. All in all, I feel it could have went better.
So I am wondering how to best adapt my usual AP-flour recipes to this flour. Obviously, I should use more hydration, but how much more? And what to do about the firmness, is this normal for durum, or just the result of insufficient hydration? Why didn't it rise, should I add sugar for the yeast to be more active? And how to make it properly elastic?
I can't speak to your specific flour but I have worked with coarsely ground whole wheat flour.
My standard bread recipes required quite a bit more kneading than usual. Additionally I had to work with them while they were still quite sticky to eventually get them to an elastic consistency.
I use a stand mixer to do the kneading for me- I'm afraid that it would be quite a mess doing it by hand. Remember that, when forming gluten, you can always trade work for time. If you can't find finer flour then I would recommend kneading the dough as much as you are able, let it rest for 15 minutes so the proteins relax, and then knead it again and see if you can't get the consistency you want without kneading all day.
Make sure the flour isn't so coarse, or has shards or bran, that would actually cut the gluten and prevent it from forming sheets. If this is the case then I don't know if you could make bread out of it predominantly. Perhaps if it were soaked overnight as in a poolish?
I mill my own flour to the finest possible setting and this seems to produce a much better textured bread.
As for the lack of rising and yeast- it is the same problem. Yeast are perfectly happy eating damaged starch in your flour. Adding sugar wouldn't necessarily help. If your dough was not elastic and failed your window pane test then there is nothing to really hold the structure of the bread. Your yeast may have been going crazy and there was just no balloon for them to blow up.
decided that if it works for pie crust, it works for bread too. But I'd like to hear your opinion. How many times should I let it rise? The usual procedure is something like Rise yeast in milk - mix... bread I know of which is kneaded in oil instead of flour to prevent sticking). A typical recipe is: 1 kg flour [assume all purpose] 55 g live yeast 300 g white sugar 250 g milk [can be partially... is the texture. First, it should be really tender. Second, it must be very airy. Third, it should be juicy, not as dry as normal bread, but not doughy. Fourth, it should have threads. This means
my first loaf reminded me of the total flops I used to make before reading through BBA and using its recipes. It was like a bread brick. I ended up deciding that croutons were the only suitable use. Since then I've made more recipes from the book, but always using his "transitional" variant of half bread flour, half wheat flour. These have risen and proofed perfectly. The technique from Whole Grain Breads involves pre-doughs. Flour, a very small amount of yeast, and water make up one dough ball that is placed in the refrigerator overnight. More flour, salt, and water are left
. The resultant bread is too flat and sadly dense. I have experimented with adding more flour to provide more structure but this only make the loaf tougher- not higher or more open. I have tried with AP flour and various wheat flours and combinations thereof. Do I need more gluten? Would adding vital gluten be enough? How should I change my process to create a sourdough loaf that is more open and can rise...I have made sourdough bread several times using roughly the same technique that I use when I make artisan bread. I let it ferment several times folding between them. I have found that when the dough
, the soaker, water, salt and instant yeast. Mix together. Add whole wheat flour and have the bread flour. Mix till the batter is smooth and well blended. Allow to sit uncovered for 15 minutes. Sprinkle some...My fiance has celiac disease and so I have been trying to get better at baking gluten-free lately. I have made the following recipe many times and it is soooo delicious; I was wondering if someone more knowledgeable than myself can help me with the proper conversions to make the recipe gluten free? The recipe is found here, but I have also copied it below. My initial thoughts are trading
not have a machine so kneaded the dough by hand all the time, followed the resting times as mentioned in the recipe. Place this dough in a large lightly oiled bowl (I use Pam spray). Turn dough over so that all sides have a thin coating of oil. Cover with plastic wrap and set in warm place for 1 1/2 hours to let rest and rise. Dough should almost double in size. While the dough is rising, about 1 hour into the rising stage, preheat your oven to 450F My oven has only 250 Celsius maximum setting, so I preheated for 15 minutes on that temperature without a stone. My dough did NOT rise during
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. Kneading everything for 8-10 minutes, which is not too much for this low hydration (45%) will result in a dough that will not pass any gluten test. To develop the gluten, the only way is to roll it down, bend it and roll it down again. For about 20 minutes. Then it rests only for 1h and it's baked. Kneading could be done in a bread machine; what I really want to do is to develop the gluten in a more efficient way. With so little water, more time will not help as with the kneadless bread recipe. How can this By the way, this bread is very common in the center of Spain, where is known as pan
I don't know how widespread this was, but I have found myself in the position of having to duplicate those sheet pizzas that used to be used for cafeteria work. It consisted of a dough layer, a sauce layer, a cheese layer and a sprinkling of either sausage or peperoni cubes. I can handle all the other layers but I know the doughs that I normally use for my various pizza applications aren't going to replicate the base layer of this "pizza". It wasn't very crisp and it didn't rise very much and it wasn't very chewy. This leads me to believe that there should be little yeast, and the flour
I've been reading (most) questions and answers (here) about baking bread (which I love) and how to replace eggs in many recipes (which I wish I didn't need). Turns out, I too have egg allergy..., not a single use case I've seen here is about bread. I'm looking for an option to replace 1-3 eggs in a bread dough with: 500 g of white wheat flour, 200 ml of milk, 50-80 g of butter, a variable amount of sugar (5-50 g) and 20-30 g of fresh yeast. Examples of this dough are the Swiss züpfe, the Polish chałka and a similar recipe from Galicia (northwest Spain) with even more eggs. And so many other